Feburary 2014

* elements

"Truth can not be suppressed and always is the ultimate victor."
(the Yajur Veda)


One of the problems facing neural science is how to explain evidence that local lesions in the brain do not selectively impair one or another memory trace. Note that in a hologram, restrictive damage does not disrupt the stored information because it has become distributed. The information has become blurred over the entire extent of the holographic film, but in a precise fashion that it can be deblurred by performing the inverse procedure.

This paper will discuss in detail the concept of a holograph and the evidence Karl Pribram uses to support the idea that the brain implements holonomic transformations that distribute episodic information over regions of the brain (and later "refocuses" them into a form in which we re-member). Particular emphasis will be placed on the visual system since its the best characterized in the neurosciences. Evidence will be examined that bears on the validity of Pribram's theory and the more conventional ideas that images are directly stored in the brain in the form of points and edges (without any transformation that distributes the information over large regions). Where possible, the same evidence (for the visual system) will be used to evaluate both theories.

1. Holonomic theory where Fourier-like transformations store information of the sensory modalities in the spectral (or frequency) domain. The sensory stimulus is spread out (or distributed) over a region of the brain. A particular example (in the case of vision) would be that particular cortical cells respond to the spatial frequencies of the visual stimulus.

2. The more conventional theory that particular features of the untransformed sensory stimulus is stored in separate places in the brain. A particular example (in vision) would be that particular visual cortical cells respond to edges or bar widths in the visual stimulus.

It will be necessary in this report to first explain the concepts of a hologram and Fourier transforms before the physiological experiments can be understood. Bear in mind that the discursion into these other fields serves a purpose for later in the report.

Karl Pribram's holonomic theory reviews evidence that the dendritic processes function to take a "spectral" transformation of the "episodes of perception". This transformed "spectral" information is stored distributed over large numbers of neurons. When the episode is remembered, an inverse transformation occurs that is also a result of dendritic processes. It is the process of transformation that gives us conscious awareness.




"When we love, we always strive to become better than we are. When we strive to become better than we are, everything around us becomes better too."

"I believe that imagination is stronger than knowledge. That myth is more potent than history. That dreams are more powerful than facts. That hope always triumphs over experience. That laughter is the only cure for grief. And I believe that love is stronger than death."

"When you have lost hope, you have lost everything. And when you think all is lost, when all is dire and bleak, there is always hope."

"Doubt is a pain too lonely to know that faith is his twin brother."

"Wonder rather than doubt is the root of all knowledge."

"Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd."

"Doubt grows with knowledge."

"Jealousy lives upon doubts. It becomes madness or ceases entirely as soon as we pass from doubt to certainty."

"Doubt is the father of invention."

"Who never doubted, never half believed. Where doubt is, there truth is - it is her shadow."


"Words are easy, like the wind; Faithful friends are hard to find."

"Of all sad words of tongue or pen, the saddest are these, It might have been."

"Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind."

"Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they'll go through anything. You read and you're pierced."

"That's what careless words do. They make people love you a little less."

"We live and breathe words."

"Words can be twisted into any shape. Promises can be made to lull the heart and seduce the soul. In the final analysis, words mean nothing. They are labels we give things in an effort to wrap our puny little brains around their underlying natures, when ninety-nine percent of the time the totality of the reality is an entirely different beast. The wisest man is the silent one. Examine his actions. Judge him by them."

"Talk, talk, talk: the utter and heartbreaking stupidity of words."

"To talk little is natural. High winds do not last all morning. Heavy rain does not last all day."

"Lying is done with words, and also with silence."

"The most terrifying words in the English language are: I'm from the government and I'm here to help."