Creating, yet not possessing. Working, yet not taking credit. Work is done, then forgotten. Therefore it lasts forever.
(Tao Te Ching, 2)

Not exalting the gifted prevents quarreling. Not collecting treasures prevents stealing. Not seeing desirable things prevents confusion of the heart.
(Tao Te Ching, 3)

He stays behind, thus he is ahead.
Through selfless action, he attains fulfillment.
(Tao Te Ching, 7)

In dealing with others, be gentle and kind. In action, be aware of the time and the season.
(Tao Te Ching, 8)

Better to stop short than fill to the brim. Claim wealth and titles, and disaster will follow.
(Tao Te Ching, 9)

Can you be without cleverness? Opening and closing the gates of heaven, Can you play the role of woman?
(Tao Te Ching, 10)

Accept disgrace willingly. Accept misfortune as the human condition. Accept being unimportant. Do not be concerned with loss or gain. Surrender yourself humbly; then you can be trusted to care for all things. Love the world as your own self; then you can truly care for all things.
(Tao Te Ching, 13)

Who can wait quietly while the mud settles? Who can remain still until the moment of action? Observers of the Tao do not seek fulfillment. Not seeking fulfillment, they are not swayed by desire for change.
(Tao Te Ching, 15)

The way of nature is unchanging. Knowing constancy is insight. Not knowing constancy leads to disaster.
(Tao Te Ching, 16)

The greatest Virtue is to follow Tao and Tao alone. The Tao is elusive and intangible. Oh, it is intangible and elusive, and yet within is image. Oh, it is elusive and intangible, and yet within is form.
(Tao Te Ching, 21)

Have little and gain; Have much and be confused. Not putting on a display, The wise shine forth. Not justifying themselves, They are distinguished. Not boasting, They receive recognition. Not bragging, They never falter. "Yield and overcome."
(Tao Te Ching, 22)

He who is self-righteous is not respected. He who boasts achieves nothing. He who brags will not endure.
(Tao Te Ching, 24)

He does not lose sight of his baggage. Despite there are beautiful things to be seen, He is unattached and calm. Why should the director of archetypes act lightly in public? To be light is to lose one's root. To be restless is to lose one's control.
(Tao Te Ching, 26)

A good door needs no lock, Yet no one can open it. Yet no one can loosen it. Therefore he takes care of all men and abandons no one. He takes care of all things And abandons nothing. What is a good man? A teacher of a bad man. What is a bad man? A good man's charge.
(Tao Te Ching, 27)

Do you think you can take over the universe and improve it? I do not believe it can be done. The universe is sacred. You cannot improve it. If you try to change it, you will ruin it. If you try to hold it, you will lose it.
(Tao Te Ching, 29)

To use force to conquer only causes resistance. Never be proud. Force is followed by loss of strength. This is not the way of Tao. That which goes against the Tao comes to an early end.
(Tao Te Ching, 27)

Victory no cause for rejoicing. If you rejoice in victory, then you delight in killing; If you delight in killing, you cannot fulfill yourself. victory must be observed like a funeral.
(Tao Te Ching, 31)

One must know when to stop. Knowing when to stop averts trouble. Tao in the world is like a river flowing home to the sea.
(Tao Te Ching, 32)

He who knows he has enough is rich. Perseverance is a sign of willpower. He who stays where he is endures.
(Tao Te Ching, 33)

A foolish man tries to be good, And is therefore not good. A truly good man does nothing, Yet leaves nothing undone.
(Tao Te Ching, 38)

When a disciplinarian does something and no one responds, He rolls up his sleeves in an attempt to enforce order. (resistance, resentment and sabatoge will follow) Knowledge of the future is only a flowery trapping of Tao. It is the beginning of folly.
(Tao Te Ching, 38)

The humble is the root of the noble. The low is the foundation of the high. Princes and lords consider themselves "orphaned", "widowed" and "worthless". Do they not depend on being humble? Too much success is not an advantage.
(Tao Te Ching, 39)

One gains by losing And loses by gaining.
(Tao Te Ching, 42)

Teaching without words and work without doing Are understood by very few.
(Tao Te Ching, 43)

He who is attached to things will suffer much. He who saves will suffer heavy loss. A contented man is never disappointed. He who knows when to stop does not find himself in trouble.
(Tao Te Ching, 44)

He who is attached to things will suffer much. He who saves will suffer heavy loss. A contented man is never disappointed. He who knows when to stop does not find himself in trouble.
(Tao Te Ching, 44)

Great straightness seems twisted. Great intelligence seems stupid. Great eloquence seems awkward.
(Tao Te Ching, 45)

There is no greater sin than desire, No greater curse than discontent, No greater misfortune than wanting something for oneself. Therefore he who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.
(Tao Te Ching, 46)

The world is ruled by letting things take their course. It cannot be ruled by interfering. In the pursuit of learning, every day something is acquired. In the pursuit of Tao, every day something is dropped.
(Tao Te Ching, 48)

He has no mind of his own. He is aware of the needs of others. He is good to people who are good. He is also good to people who are not good. He resembles a child. 
(Tao Te Ching, 49)

He has no place for death to enter.
(Tao Te Ching, 50)

Creating without claiming, Doing without taking credit, Guiding without interfering, This is Primal Virtue.
(Tao Te Ching, 51)

Keep your mouth shut, Guard the senses, And life is ever full. Open your mouth, Always be busy, And life is beyond hope.
(Tao Te Ching, 52)

Keep your mouth closed. Guard your senses. Temper your sharpness. Simplify your problems. Mask your brightness. He who has achieved this state Is unconcerned with friends and enemies, With good and harm, with honor and disgrace. This therefore is the highest state of man.
(Tao Te Ching, 56)

I take no action and people are reformed. I enjoy peace and people become honest. I do nothing and people become rich. I have no desires and people return to the good and simple life.
(Tao Te Ching, 57)

When the country is ruled with severity, The people are cunning. Happiness is rooted in misery. Misery lurks beneath happiness. Who knows what the future holds? There is no honesty. Honesty becomes dishonest. Goodness becomes witchcraft. Man's bewitchment lasts for a long time.
(Tao Te Ching, 58)

In caring for others and serving heaven, There is nothing like using restraint. Restraint begins with giving up one's own ideas. This depends on Virtue gathered in the past. If there is a good store of Virtue, then nothing is impossible. This is called having deep roots and a firm foundation, The Tao of long life and eternal vision.
(Tao Te Ching, 59)

Good and evil do not hurt each other, the Virtue in each one refreshes both.
(Tao Te Ching, 60)

A great nation needs more people; A small country needs to serve. Each gets what it wants. It is fitting for a great nation to yield.
(Tao Te Ching, 61)

If a man is bad, do not abandon him. Therefore on the day the emperor is crowned, Or the three officers of state installed, Do not send a gift of jade and a team of four horses, But remain still and offer the Tao.
(Tao Te Ching, 62)

Easy promises make for little trust. Taking things lightly results in great difficulty. Because he always confronts difficulties, he never experiences them.
(Tao Te Ching, 63)

Peace is easily maintained; Trouble is easily overcome before it starts. Deal with it before it happens. Set things in order before there is confusion. He who acts defeats his own purpose; He who grasps loses. People usually fail when they are on the verge of success. So give as much care to the end as to the beginning; Then there will be no failure. He seeks freedom from desire. he does not collect precious things. He learns not to hold on to ideas. He brings men back to what they have lost. others push forward fulfilling archetypes, But he refrains from action.
(Tao Te Ching, 64)

Those who rule without cleverness Are a blessing to the land.
(Tao Te Ching, 65)

He lies below the people. he serves with humility. to lead them, he must follow behind. the people are not harmed by his pressence. The whole world will support him and will not tire of him. Because he does not compete, He does not meet competition.
(Tao Te Ching, 66)

I have three treasures which I hold and keep. The first is mercy; the second is economy; The third is daring not to be ahead of others. From mercy comes courage; from economy comes generosity; From humility comes leadership.
(Tao Te Ching, 67)

A good winner is not vengeful A good employer is humble. This is known as the Virtue of not striving. This is known as ability to deal with people."
(Tao Te Ching, 68)

He works without recognition, and he achieves what has to be done without dwelling on it. He does not try to show his knowledge.
(Tao Te Ching, 77)

A man without Virtue requires others to fulfill their obligations. The Tao of heaven is impartial. It stays with good men all the time.
(Tao Te Ching, 79)

He never tries to store things up. The more he does for others, the more he has. The more he gives to others, the greater his abundance.
(Tao Te Ching, 81)


"It is difficult when you donít have to work. You have to think. It sounds easy, but sometimes it is not. I struggled to know why we are alive and how we should best spend our lives."
(Minoru Arakawa)

"Yamauchi had no concept that he was building a computer, but he nonetheless had his first glimpse of the incredible potential of a home computer system disguised as a toy. He saw far more than he let on to us."
(Masayuki Uemura)

"What if you walk along and everything that you see is more than what you see? The space that appears empty is a secret door to an alternate world. Perhaps it really is a doorway to another place. If you choose to go inside you might find many unexpected things."
(Shigeru Miyamoto)

"You must find what is your own, what you are good at. If you can find that and choose a goal you believe in and work to conquer it, you get the most satisfaction. It is a valuable view of life: to set your own sights. Then to do what is necessary to get there."
(Minoru Arakawa)

"Some saw video games as insidious hypnotizers and mind destroyers; others viewed them as training tools for the cybernetic world of the future."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"A nearly impossible mission, doomed to perish sooner or later, yet free while he lives to grow, learn, slay demons and stop to smell the fire flowers. People were catching a crude, bright, hypnotic reflection of their own lives."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"His team were a band of samurai. They operated quietly, with less recognition than the others. Their leader was an enigma.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"People who play RPGs are depressed gamers who like to sit alone in their dark rooms and play slow games."
(Hiroshi Yamauchi)

"There was something different about Nintendo. Here were these very serious men thinking about the content of play."
(Masayuki Uemura)

"We must look in different directions. Throw away all your old ideas in order to come up with something new."
(Hiroshi Yamauchi)

"Many senses had to be taken over almost instantly to make the game play hot. The consciousness of the player had to be captured. Fast action and intellectual challenge were the two keys."
(Masayuki Uemura)

"The most important thing we looked for in a supplier was the brain to cope with us. Unfortunately we found that most companies are not flexible. Most companies move too slowly. That was not acceptable."
(Gunpei Yokoi)

"We Japanese plan and develop our business strategies ten years ahead of time."
(Akio Morita)

"Nintendo is a haven for videogame artists, for it is artists, not technicians, who make great games. An ordinary man cannot develop good games no matter how hard he tries. A handful of people in this world can develop games that everybody wants. I am interested in the one genius who will drive Nintendo."
(Hiroshi Yamauchi)

"The game gave kids the sort of power they couldn't get anywhere else. It was safe for them to make mistakes while playing, because there was always another chance. The things that ordinarily made kids popular at school were not important when they were playing."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Research and development is the most difficult department to control. It is difficult to control artists because they do not want to compromise. R & D is the heart of a company."
(Hiroshi Yamauchi)

"It's like a sense for the fashion business, knowing what will become hot and popular next season. He can read a few years in advance. He is so certain that he is right that he listens to no one."
(on Yamauchi)

"Marketting people will only look at what is popular right now. If we make the game based on what is popular right now, the game will not be new and fresh."
(Hiroshi Imanishi)

"Most commonly, designers whose work was rejected would only redouble their efforts, determined to have their game chosen the next time. This was the advantage of Yamauchi's autocracy."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Yamauchi believed that it was far better to put all his resources into the production of one or two hit games a year rather than several minor successes. This meant the stakes were high."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Internal competition didn't turn against them because if any one team had too much success, it could be expected to be slapped down. The result is that each team came to excel in different areas and at different moments."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Donkey meant stupid or goofy. Donkey Kong? It made no sense. Games that were selling had titles that contained words such as mutilation, destroy, assasinate, and annhilate."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"The games were a trigger to again become primitive, primal, as a way of thinking and remembering. An adult is a child who has more ethics and morals. That's all. The game is not for children. It is for me. It is for the adult that still has a character of a child."
(Shigeru Miyamoto)

"Among older businessmen, Yamauchi was either ignored or regarded with contempt. His style betrayed the distinction between them: Yamauchi showed his coarse emotion to anyone within earshot - his rages were routine - while the Arakawa's were always dignified, revealing nothing."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Yamauchi was married to Nintendo. he brought home all his anger and frustration when things were going badly. Yamauchi himself blamed Nintendo for his chronic stomach-aches. Throughout her childhood, the family had waited at home for him in the evenings, fearful of his moods. We were all shaken by him his daughter remembers. "We all suffered".
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Arakawa asked American kids questions about what made a game good. Arakawa realized that the most successful games had something the players couldnít articulate. The words used to describe them were those usually reserved to describe forms of intimacy between people. It was as if the players and the game itself somehow merged."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Successful games had to have immediate impact and exciting nose and graphics; a player had to be captivated within the first thirty seconds. There could be no letup in the intensity for two minutes - the time the quarter lasted. If the players werenít engrossed by then, they left the machine for good."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

Yamauchi decided that Nintendo should work with the company that had the most at stake. He told Arakawa a deal should be made with Coleco. "It is the hungriest company."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"A typical lawyer response: you never tell a client that you donít know what youíre doing."
(Howard Lincoln)

Nintendo wrote up a contract making Coleco assume the entire risk. Lincoln then skewed the rest of the contract to favour Nintendo "mostly because we didnít know how things were normally done" he says.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

The Coleco executive told Yamauchi that he would take the contract back to America to have the companyís attorney check it over and return it signed. Yamauchi refused saying "you must sign it now, or we are going to go with someone else." The man froze. He had no choice. Nervously he signed the agreement.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

Phil Rogers joined Nintendo full time in 1982. Rogers said he wanted to be a vice-president. When Arakawa balked, Rogers said, "donít worry about the title; everybody is a vice president in the United States."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"You cannot look forward if you are looking left and right."

Nintendo litigated thirty-five copyright infringement suits against individuals and companies selling counterfeit "donkey Kong" games, but in spite of all the efforts, the company lost at least 100 million in potential sales because of counterfeiters. Lincoln and Arakawa put more time and thought into planning better legal strategies.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Sid Sheinberg was an attorney who was known to work like python strangling his prey before devouring it."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"I view litigation as a profit centre."
(Sid Sheinberg)

"What I initially met John Kirby, I wasnít all that impressed. He was kind of disheveled looking and out of sorts. But it didnít take long to figure out that his guy was one hell of a lawyer. I could eventually tell he was a very strong person who was used to getting his own way. There was no small talk. He didnít waste time."
(Howard Lincoln)

"We have more lawyers in Seatle than you have in all of Japan. Few lawyers is the greatest business advantage Japan has over the United States."
(Hiroshi Yamauchi)

"MCA claimed they had protected the King Kong trademark. However, past litigation seemed to confirm that King Kong was in the public domain. The best news was that Universal had earlier prevailed in litigation by asserting just that: that the name King Kong was in the public domain and could not be trademarked."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"After being invited by Arakawa to work with him at Nintendo, Lincoln agreed but only under one condition: he wouldnít come aboard as corporate counsel. He wanted to help run the company, to be involved in every aspect of the business."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"The judge criticized Sid Sheinberg and MCA for bringing the lawsuit in spite of full recognition that it didnít own the rights, and this paved the way for Nintendo to be awarded damages."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Sid Sheinbergís arrogance had, in the opinion of several spectators, infuriated the judge. But what really sank MCA was the evidence that Sheinberg had already instigated and won a lawsuit proving that King Kong was in the public domain. Now Sheinberg was taking out another lawsuit to prove the very opposite of his previous lawsuit. This only served as evidence for everyone, including the judge, that Sheinberg seen litigation as a profit centre."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

We learned that we could handle ourselves in the big leagues. And we learend that the kind of arrogance we saw at MCA is lethal.
(Howard Lincoln)

"Yamauchi decided it was time to launch the Famicom in America. To determine if it was feasible, Arakawa undertook an investigation of the American home video game business. It was like surveying a car wreck."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Multimedia was the latest buzzword in the consumer electronics industry, predicted to be for the 1990s what personal computers were for the 1980s. It was a dramatic new technology that pulled together the wizardry of television, personal computers, compact discs, video discs and video games. Key to it was the ability to interact with the programming that comes into the home."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Kids no longer would be passively fed television. They would influence the stories they were being told, choosing whether the hero would be a prince or a princess, or whether he or she would kill the dragon or befriend it. All forms of media - movies, books, music - were becoming more like video games."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"A game can teach geography and history as a players moves through the course. A game can teach complex decision making and critical thinking."
(Nolan Bushnell)

"Nolan Bushnell had been trying to revolutionize our lives so often that it was difficult to take him completely seriously. His life had been a roller coaster of revolutionary visions and promises - and the millions of dollars that come with them, but also the disappointments."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Bushnell was a consummate salesman, obnoxiously persistent. This and his immodest, even grandiose, vision - he projected sales of hundreds of millions of dollars - finally convinced one of the Valleyís most astute and creditable venture capitalists, Done Valentine, to back the company."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

We provided a place for creative people to be part of something completely new. These were people who wanted to create something intellectually stimulating and fun. They wanted to put their talent into making games, not bombs.
(Nolan Bushnell )

"Bushnell spent more time managing his personal investments than he did running his company. He wanted the business, wanted to run it, but didnít want to come to work."
(Manny Gerard)

"For me, boredom is a prime mover. I go from being bored to being completely hassled and harried, because I always bite off more than I can chew. And it gets worse as I get older, because now I know how to follow through on ideas."
(Nolan Bushnell)

"Atari (driven by Bushnell) threatened to sue anyone who tried to make software for the Atari 800. If customers wanted a spreadsheet or word processor they had to buy Atariís. Meanwhile, outside developers came out with software for the Apple II, which sold millions of the machines."
(Nolan Bushnell)

I was a way for him not just to have dozens of ideas, but to give them life. Nolan Bushnells choice of the name Sente summed up part of what drove him. As Atari meant check in go. Sente meant check mate.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"It turns out that women do not want scientific rigour in their beauty."
(Nolan Bushnell)

"Youíve created one mega enterprise. The next turns into another mega enterprise. Hell, no sweat. Why canít I buy whatever I want? You get sloppy. I took my eye off the ball. I was flying much too high to be brought down by a small arrow. It took a three stage rocket because I was in the stratosphere. I believed I could do no wrong. It was time for some soul searching. Whatís next big boy?"
(Nolan Bushnell)

"Fascination with the games, often accompanied by cosmic brooding about their presumed bad effects on faith, morals and school attendance seems to be universal."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

Atari had been very successful, but nobody really knew why. All they were doing was pumping out cartridges and selling millions of units, but there was no strategic thinking going on. The number of horrendous management decisions that went on in that place is amazing.
(Nolan Bushnell, president of Atari)

Very seldom do you have an industry in which the dominant player not only abandons leadership but abandons the industry. There was nothing left. Basically they retrenched, retrenched, retrenched and didnít really try anything innovative.
(Nolan Bushnell, president of Atari)

Arakawa marveled at the intensity of the hostility toward video games - even the phrase was taboo. In the horror stories about the industry, hyperbole was unnecessary.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Arakawa came to realize that it didnít matter how much money was spent on marketing, advertising and promotion if the games werenít good enough. As a Nintendo slogan later acknowledged, "the name of the game is the games." Arakawa knew that he had, if nothing else, Shigeru Miyamotoís great games."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

What is the most difficult town to start in? The answer was obvious: New York City. Yamauchi asked why. Besides the obvious hurdles of New Yorkís competitive market, it also had been hit the hardest by the crash of the industry in 1983. whatís more, much of the excess inventories had been dumped there - not to mention that New York had the most savvy and cynical buyers in the country. Yamauchi said that New York was where they should go. He gave Arakawa a budget of $50 million.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"In those businesses (colgate toothpaste, palmolive) a fraction of a market share meant millions of dollars. You had to be a street fighter. You had to beat them on the curbs."
(Peter Main)

Arakawa's perseverance was vital - "I learned to set a goal and to do what is necessary to reach it" - but even more important was Yamauchiís commitment to finance his efforts.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Japanese companies are not under pressure to deliver high dividends or dramatic short term growth. The structure allows company heads to work toward long term growth; they are not forced to abandon a strategy today because it didnít pay off yesterday. Nintendo's success was proof of the superiority of a system that allows long term commitment."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"The companies that suffered because of Nintendoís success would have been better served if they had struck out against the American system which allowed nintendo to stroll into a market that had been all but destroyed."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Japan bashers were correct in one sense. If the playing fields in japan and America had been equal, Nintendo might never have destroyed the American competition. Even in its heyday, Atari never had much success in the japanese consumer market."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Arakawa endured because he didnít care what anyone thought. Analysts rolled their eyes, but he refused to be dependent on the American industryís narrow view of the market. He kept slugging away because he believed, correctly, that kids in America were very much like kids in Japan."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

Nintendo would never have gained its enormous sales without phenomenal marketing - "the kind that America had never seen before" according to a competitor.
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"There was so much male power that Arakawa needed Gail to diffuse it. Tilden was talented, perceptive and dedicated and was the one to prepare the first issue of the company magazine in January."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"The magazine had what Peter Main called an ability to pre-sell product. It was as if Universal Studios owned Premiere Magazine. Universal could then decide, well in advance, to trumpet a particular coming movie, building anticipation. ďPeople sometimes just take kids for granted or act like theyíre really dumb. Nintendo did its best to speak to kids as peers. Parents who complain that kids donít read should pay attention - kids pore over every word of Nintendo Power."
(Howard Phillips)

"We have found that more and better information whets players appetites for more games and accessories. Hungry consumers make happy retailers.
(Peter Main)

"We donít just give away secrets - we are trained in the Socratic Method of game counselling."
(Blaine Phelps, Game Counsellor)

"The game counsellors did more than provide a customer service. They bonded players to the company. The degree to which kids become obsessed with Nintendo amazed educators, psychologists and parents. Many kids came home from school and found neither mom or dad there. Nintendo came to mean more to them, filling a larger role in their lives."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Through the game counsellors, Nintendo was gaining great insight into its customers: they were finding out which groups were excited by what games, and how games could be made better. Counselors gave pointers but also queried callers about their likes and dislikes. Calls were used for market research."
(David Sheff, Game Over)

"Sometimes you cannot get the honest answer by asking questions of children. But if you watch their faces while they are playing, you can tell very easily whether the game is good or not. We have more than 90% success in judging games."

"I donít know if Iím the best player in the world, but I know that on any given day I could beat just about anybody on any game. A key was that I wasnít trying to think like players; I was a player."
(Howard Phillips)

to be continued from Chapter 9, pg. 188